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Psychoneuroendocrine processes in human pregnancy influence fetal development and health

Application: Exposing the Gaps—How Does the United States Compare in Key Determinants of Health?

When the health of a population is measured by various mortality indicators such as life expectancy, infant or child mortality, or the chances of surviving to retirement, surprising trends emerge. Health, as measured by longevity, appears to be declining in substantial segments of the U.S. population, especially for women (United Health Foundation, 2013). These findings receive little attention in most public health efforts or in the mainstream media, at least in the United States.

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For this Assignment, you select health indicators used to measure the health of the U.S. population and contrast them to other countries around the world. You compare various determinants of health within different states in the United States as well as across continents.

The Assignment (3– pages):

· Provide a brief description of the two health indicators you selected, citing specific sources.

· Explain how the U.S. ranks on these indicators compared to other nations.

· Explain two factors that might influence those rankings and the relative standing of the U.S. compared to the other nations.

· Determine which two states rank the best and which two states rank the worst for those indicators. Describe factors you believe might contribute to those relative rankings among the states.

· Share any insights you gained or conclusions you drew as a result of making these comparisons.

· Expand on your insights utilizing the Learning Resources.

Submit your Assignment by Day



· Wilkinson, R., & Pickett, K. (2010).The spirit level: Why greater equality makes societies stronger. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press.

o Chapter 4, “Community Life and Social Relations” (pp. 49–62)

· Centers for Disease Control. (2011, January 14).Health disparities and inequalities report—United States.Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report,60(Suppl.), 1–116.

o Pages 3–17 are required; the remaining pages are optional.

· Bezruchka, S. (2010). Health equity in the USA.Social Alternatives,29(2), 50–56.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· Central Intelligence Agency. (n.d.).The world factbook. Retrieved February 19, 2014, from
Review selected pages below:

o Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth

o Country Comparison: Infant Mortality Rate

· Gapminder. (2013).Gapminder world offline. Retrieved from

· National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO). (2013). Retrieved from

· United Health Foundation. (2013).America’s health report: About the rankings. Retrieved from

· World Health Organization. (2014).World health statistics. Retrieved from


· Laureate Education (Producer). (2011).Global health and issues in disease prevention[Multimedia file]. Retrieved from

o “Health in the U.S.,” featuring Stephen Bezruchka, MD
Note:The approximate length of this media piece is 5 minutes.

· Rutenbeck, J. (Director & Producer). (2008). Growing wealth divide is bad for health [Video excerpt]. In L. Adelman (Executive producer),Unnatural causes: Episode 7—Not just a paycheck.United States: Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved from California Newsreel, 2008.
Note:The approximate length of this media piece is 4 minutes.

· The Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (Producer). (2010).Determinants of health: A framework for reaching Healthy People 2020 goals[Web video]. Retrieved from
Determinants of Health: A Framework for Reaching Healthy People 2020 Goals by Healthy Copyright 2010 by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Note:The approximate length of this media piece is 5 minutes.

Download Transcripts:Week 2 Transcripts (.zip)Optional Resources

· Gluckman, P. D., Hanson, M. A., Cooper, C., & Thornburg, K. L. (2008). Mechanisms of disease: Effect of in utero and early-life conditions on adult health and disease.The New England Journal of Medicine,359(1), 61–73.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· Hegewald, M. J., & Crapo, R. O. (2007). Socioeconomic status and lung function.Chest, 132(5), 1608–1614. Retrieved from

· Leichter, H. M. (2003). “Evil habits” and “personal choices”: Assigning responsibility for health in the 20th century.The Milbank Quarterly,81(4), 603–626.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases

· Paul, A. M. (2010).Origins: How the nine months before birth shape the rest of our lives. New York, NY: Free Press.

· Vericker, T., Macomber, J., & Gloden, O. (2010).Infants of depressed mothers living in poverty: Opportunities to identify and serve. Brief 1. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

· Wadhwa, P. D. (2005). Psychoneuroendocrine processes in human pregnancy influence fetal development and health.Psychoneuroendocrinology,30(8), 724–743.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.

· UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (Producer). (2010, November 25).The children left behind. New report and an interview with author Peter Adamson[Video file]. Video posted to

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