Tobacco use is a risk factor for a wide variety of health problems. In the United States alone, tobacco use kills more than 480,000 individuals each year, wherein more than 41,000 of these deaths are due to secondhand smoke exposure (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). Surprisingly, cigarette smoking is higher among individuals currently serving in the military, particularly those personnel who have been deployed (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). For instance, tobacco use prevalence, including both smokeless and smoking, is lowest among Air Force (40%) personnel and highest among Marines (61%) (Smith, Poston, Haddock, & Malone, 2016). In this case, health promotion through tobacco control program provides an excellent opportunity to encourage military personnel smokers and nonsmokers to improve health status by preventing tobacco use.
Almost every organ in the body is at risk due to tobacco use. Cigarette smoking accounts for at least 30% of all cancer deaths, with most of the case caused by tobacco use is lung cancer (National Institute of Health, 2018). Also, tobacco use can cause lung diseases such as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (National Institute of Health, 2018). Additionally, smoking cigarette can also increase the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases including stroke, heart attack, vascular disease, and aneurysm (National Institute of Health, 2018).
Program Planning Model
In this tobacco control program, PRECEDE-PROCEED planning model is utilized. PRECEDE stands for Predisposing, Reinforcing, and Enabling Constructs in Educational/Environmental Diagnosis and Evaluation; and PROCEED spells out Policy, Regulatory, and Organizational Constructs in Educational and Environmental Development (as cited in McKenzie, Neiger, & Thackeray, 2017). This planning model has eight phases: (1) social assessment, (2) epidemiological assessment, (3) educational and ecological assessment, (4) administrative & policy assessment and intervention alignment, (5) implementation, (6) process evaluation, (7) impact evaluation, (8) outcome evaluation (McKenzie, Neiger, & Thackeray, 2017).
Phase 1: Social assessment and situational analysis
The data used in this study was collected from the service-level health promotion leaders in the military such in the different branches of the Naval Hospitals, Army Medical Centers, and Air Force bases. These data include the medical history of the military personnel who experienced smoking cigarette in the past and those who are currently smoking.
Phase 2: Epidemiological assessment
It is important to consider the impact of tobacco use on the different military branches such as in the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps divisions. The level of stress in the military is a behavioral risk factor for tobacco use. Smoking cigarette is perceived as a method for countering stress. Furthermore, the military population is ethnically diverse. It is essential to examine the ethnic background that drives the behavioral aspect of tobacco use.
Phase 3: Educational and ecological assessment
Every military personnel have different missions and level of stress provided by the workforce. And each personnel have different beliefs, traditions, and way of coping with tension and stress before and after duties.
Phase 4: Administrative & policy assessment and intervention alignment
It is significant to define the framework of tobacco use by assessing the work policy, health intervention, and personal behavior in the military groups.
Primary Data Collection
According to a recent interview conducted, there are different issues for a different segment of the population, for example, Mental Health Smokers, Substance Abuse Smokers, Coping Smokers, Social Smokers, Regular Smokers and Parolee Smokers all have different needs. The most smokers are not willing to implement a change with smoking habits until they are ready to do so. The strategies have been active with clients who are eager to be educated, supported and connected to resources to plan for a quit attempt. These groups need support groups and Local Smoking Cessation Programs.
Secondary Data Collection
Proof based prescribed procedures for tobacco control have been generally advanced and have prevailing with regards to diminishing tobacco use in the United States. The advisory group perceives, notwithstanding, that recognizing the accepted procedures for particular and assorted populaces can be testing (Eriksen, 2000). Decreasing tobacco utilize faces uncommon difficulties since tobacco items are lawful and simple to get, exceptionally addictive, and vigorously advanced by a tobacco industry that burns through billions of dollars a year to advance tobacco as a component of the American culture (Rogers, 2010). Making a sans tobacco culture will rely upon building up a situation that empowers forbearance and makes numerous kinds of successful help and consolation open to differing populaces.
A wellbeing needs evaluation is a deliberate technique to survey the present and conceivable medical problems confronting a populace. From this confirmation needs and asset assignment that will enhance wellbeing and decrease disparities can be agreed. Needs appraisals can be more extensive than wellbeing and can incorporate measurements, for example, financial, similar to the case with this evaluation. Needs assessments are frequently structured as follows:
Definition of the issue
Epidemiological necessities appraisal
Comparative needs evaluation
Current administration arrangement
Corporate necessities evaluation (partner sees)
Identification of neglected needs
Recommendations for change
This structure freely takes after the Stevens and beam system and draws on the NICE direction for Health Needs Assessment yet is separated to center around the partner sees and new advancements on the Tobacco Control plan.
This paper will focus on health promotion for the military personnel who are at risk for developing smoking-related diseases such as lung cancer and diseases and cardiovascular diseases due to tobacco use.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Burden of tobacco use in the U.S. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/resources/data/cigarette-smoking-in-united-states.html
McKenzie, J., Neiger, B., & Thackeray, R. (2017). Planning, implementing, and evaluating health promotion programs (7th edition). United States of America: Pearson Education, Inc. Retrieved from www.chegg.com
National Institute of Health. (2018). Tobacco, nicotine, and e-cigarettes. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/tobacco-nicotine-e-cigarettes/what-are-physical-health-consequences-tobacco-use
Eriksen, M. (2000). Best practices for comprehensive tobacco control programs: opportunities for managed care organisations. Tobacco Control, 9(90001), 11-14.
Ranjan, R., & Jain, S. (2018). Strengthening National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) to advance tobacco control (TC) policy in Uttar Pradesh (UP). Tobacco Induced Diseases, 16(1).
Rogers, T. (2010). The California Tobacco Control Program: introduction to the 20-year retrospective. Tobacco Control, 19(Supplement 1), 1-2.