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History and Nursing

History and Nursing

Discussion Post Week 6 Please include references Discussion 1: Week 6: The Great Depression What were the underlying causes of the depression? Why did the Great Depression of the 1930s seem so much worse than any occurring either before or since? Can you see any modern parallels to the Great Depression? Elaborate. Answer: Discussion 2: Week 6: World War II What were the underlying causes of World War II? Select one event that you think irrevocably led the world (and the U.S.) to war more than any other event. Argue your selection with details that support your answer. Answer: REPLY TO COLLEAGE DISCUSION POSTS. STATE WHETHER YOU AGREE OR WANT TO ADD SOMETHING TO THE POST. Discussion Post 1: Professor & Class, Week 6: The Great Depression The Great Depression was America’s longest and most severe economic crisis. There were many, complex reasons for the Great Depression, which prompted competing views on solutions throughout the 1930’s. The catalyst for the depression was the Stock Market crash in 1929. However, the basis for the economic downturn can be attributed to many factors such as: • • • Overproduction and falling product demand, for example cars and appliances, in the 1920’s. High tariffs on foreign products lead to reciprocal tariffs and diminished markets when American demand for products slumped. Agricultural downturn when World War 1 ended and demand fell. The Stock Market Crash on October 20, 1929 marked the start of the depression, when stock prices plummeted leading to a panicked, selling frenzy. The practice of buying on speculation contributed to the financial issues. Speculators sold their shares as soon as prices rose, which inflated prices. Investors were often speculating with other people’s money, such as American savings accounts. The Stock Market crash affected rich and poor, lead to bank and business closings, massive unemployment, falling wages, and rising homelessness and poverty. (Keene, Cornell, & O’Donnell, 2013) The Great Depression followed and wiped out the prosperity of 1920’s. Today, there are government laws and protections to help prevent another great depression, such as the Federal Reserve Bank. However, the immense size of the U.S. national debt and stock market and oil price volatility could cause another financial crisis. Keene, J., Cornell, S., O’Donnell, E. (2013). Visions of America: A History of the United States (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Answer: Discussion Post 2: Hello Professor Muir & classmates: The are many underlying causes to the Great Depression. Some of the causes included: • • • a high unemployment rate: the unemployment at this time was about 25% of the population which meant the people did not have the money to purchase, trade or invest into the economy. a negative rate of inflation: prices fell because the supply of goods is higher than the demand of goods which meant that if someone borrowed a dollar they needed to return a much more valuable dollar. Banks did not give loans as freely because they were worried about their own fate. a great impact that the rate of inflation had on the economy. The rate of inflation was negative which meant the rate of interest became high which made investments collapse. When investments began to collapse, investors withdrew all the money from the banks. The Great Depression of 1930’s seems so much worse than any occurring event either before or since because of the devastation it caused to the people. It took until the 1950’s for the stock market to return to its pre-depression levels so imagine the devastation it has caused. People lost their homes and families became homeless and it took great difficulty for this to rebuild. Modern parallels occurring to the Great Depression would be the recession that we experienced in 2008. There are many similarities between the both, although the depression was much worse. Interestingly, both major crisis’ were caused by rapid credit expansion and financial innovation that led to high leverage. During the recession in 2008 the stock market fell hurting the American economy which led to job loss, decrease in salaries, heightened interest rates, etc. Additionally, the middle class during the Great Depression were hurt even more because they had already stretched their debt capacities with purchases such as cars, appliances, etc. on installment loans, which is much like today. References Keene, J., Cornell, S., O’Donnell, E. (2013). Visions of America: A History of the United States (2nded.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Kelly, M. (N.D.). Top 5 causes of The Great Depression. Retrieved on April 1, 2018, from Answer: Discussion Post 3: Professor and class, There were many events that led to WWII. Expansion is one reason. Hitler wanted to reclaim what he thought was rightfully Germany’s lands and expand out further. Mussolini wanted “a new Roman Empire”. Japan wanted to take over China to reap from its economy and resources. Failing of the League of Nations is another reason. When it came about after WWI it was to prevent further wars. It did not work with the countries that were trying to expand and that forced allies to use violent ways to stop them. Anti-Communism was yet another reason with the Bolsheviks in power in Russia and them wanting to rid capitalism around the world. They were backing Communist regimes forming in other countries and a lot of Europeans were fearing a revolt. One additional and important reason if the Treaty of Versailles. The harsh treaty came at a time when the German economy was bad, made Germany upset, and caused them to support the Nazi party (History on the net. N.D.). The Treaty was definitely a prominent reason for WWII. The treaty was the ending of WWI. Germany felt they were forced to sign it. The treaty terms had Germany accepting the blame for the start of the war. They had to pay large amounts of money to help rebuild France and Belguim (at a time when they were already poor as a country) and give away land. They had to massively reduce their army and fleet size which forced them to only be able to defend themselves and never go on the offense. This did not only seem to be unfair but humiliating. The German people not satisfied with the conditions they were living in and the dissatisfaction of the government chose Hitler as their chancellor. His power rose over time because of promises to bring back the dignity and honor of Germany that they lost with the War and treaty and the many outside reasons for losing the war and did not believe in was Germany’s fault. It was his hate and blame of the WW I defeat along with humiliation and Germany’s loss of so much afterward that fueled the fire leading to WWII. (N.D.) World War II. Retrieved April 2, 2018, from (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. History on the Net. (N.D.). World War 2- Causes. Retrieved April 2, 2018, from (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Teaching history. (N.D.). Cause and Effect: The Outbreak of World War II. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. Answer: Discussion Post 4: Professor and Class, There were many events that untimely led to WW2, and I feel like I want to talk about Pearl Harbor, just because that’s when America joined the game, but the reality is it started long before that, with many twists and turns. A perfect storm if you will. I feel like the Versailles Treaty played a major role in leading up to the war. Ironically it came at the end of WW1, with a belief, among other things, that “punishing” Germany would prevent another Great War from happening again. Germany was forced to sign the treaty, basically admitting that they were the ones that caused WW1 and were now financially responsible for the damages related to the war (Treaty of, n.d.). Knowing that Germany could not make the payments required of them, the “War Guilt Clause” was though to keep Germany from regaining economic superiority. Another way to keep Germany in check was to prohibit them from having an Air Force and forcing them to concede all overseas colonies. Our lesson tells us these actions left Germany and the German people ripe for a leader that would protect them and restore Germany to its previous glory. Such a man as Adolph Hitler (2018). Hitlers rise, and Germany becoming a fascist state set in motion the beginnings of WW2. Chamberlain College of Nursing (2018). HIST-405N Week 6 Lesson: From the great war to world war II. Downers Grove, IL. Treaty of Versailles, 1919. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved from Answer: Discussion Post 5: Professor & Class, One of the basic rules for understanding results in a research study is rule number one understand the purpose of the study (CCN, 2018). What is the researching looking to find an answer to? What are they comparing? Are there any similarities present? In our lesson, for week 6 the example that is presented is trying to see if there are any similarities among Chamberlain students. Another example may be a study is trying to find out what type of family picks out a certain type of dog. I feel we can usually get this information from the beginning of the research study. Clinical significance is a” subjective interpretation of a research result as practical of meaningful for the patient and is likely to affect provider behavior” (Thompson, 2017). Statistical significance “has to do with the likelihood that the research results are true and not buy a matter of chance” (Thompson, 2017). I would say that clinical significance is more meaningful when applying evidence to my practice. I would change my behavior based on the results of my findings. The clinical significance tells us how effective or meaningful the research findings might be to the patients. Descriptive statistics in research provide simple summaries of the sample and the measures. With this type of statistics, it is describing what is or what the data shows. In regards to inferential statistics, a person is trying to reach conclusions that are more than the data alone. An example of inferential statistics is that to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups is a dependable one or one that might have happened by chance in this study. With descriptive statistics is to describe what is going on with the data and inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions (Trochim, 2008). My clinical issue is: In the emergency department at Rockledge Regional Medical Center (P) how does using a medication reconciliation personnel (MRP)(I) compared to the nurse at the time of triage inputting a patients medication reconciliation (C ) influence the amount of medication error reduction (O ) over a 30 day period (T)? Descriptive statistics: When doing a chart review how many charts had a nurse enter in home medications versus a pharmacy personnel. Inferential statistics: if I was to draw a conclusion and predict the data would be that having a pharmacy personal enter the medication would be more beneficial to the hospitalist and patient. Chamberlain College of Nursing. (2018). NR-439 Week 6: RN Evidence-Based Practice. [Online Lesson]. Downers, IL: Devry Education Group. Thompson, C. (2017, April 11). What’s the Difference Between Statistical Significance and Clinical Significance? Retrieved April 04, 2018, from Trochim, W. V. (2008, October 20). Descriptive Statistics. Retrieved April 04, 2018, from Answer: Discussion Post 6: Professor and class, According to our lesson, Rule #1 is, “Understand the purpose of the study” (CCN.2018). In order to correctly perform the study, you must first understand the purpose of the study. The purpose of the study allows you to understand what the final conclusion or goal is that the research study hopes to achieve or reveal. Statistics is when a number that expresses the probability that a result of a given study could have occurred purely by chance. When the probability is very small, then the probability that the results were due to error is very small, and the researcher can be very confident that the effects of the intervention are real and the test is said to have statistical significance (Houser. 2018). Clinical significance is the practical importance of a treatments effect. Clinical significance study results are used in order to support change from old practices to new practices ensuring current EBP are being used. Descriptive statistics uses data to provide descriptions of the population, either through numerical calculations or graphs or tables and inferential statistics makes inferences and predictions about a population based on a sample taken from the population in question (2018). My research question is, in non-Insulin dependent type 2 diabetic women with a BMI < 35 enrolled in the Bariatric Surgery Program at the Clinical Hospital of the Orlando Regional Medical Center in Orlando, Florida (P), how does bariatric surgery/gastric bypass (I) compared to diet, exercise, and life style changes (C) effect the elimination of type 2 diabetes (O) within 36 months (T)? The descriptive statistics for my clinical question would represent the characteristics of the people who participated in a study such as female, co-morbidities, type 2 diabetic and the inferential statistics would represent all type 2 diabetics who had gastric bypass surgery. References Chamberlain College of Nursing (CCN). (2018). NR-439 Week 6: RN Evidence-Based Practice. [Online Lesson]. Downers, IL: DeVry Education Group. Rtrieved from: Houser, J. (2018). Nursing Research: Reading, Using and Creating Evidence, 4th Edition. [Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.) Answer: Discussion Post 7: Professor and Classmates, In our reading, this week we learned that a statistically significant refers to an association or difference exists between the variables that weren’t caused solely by normal variation or chance a difference is deemed clinically significant. while statistical significance is important, the clinical significance can affect the care and outcome of patients more. The four basic rules for understanding results in a research study are “understanding the purpose of the study, identifying the variables (dependent and independent), identifying how the variables are measured, and looking at the measures of central tendency and the measures of variability for the study of variables” (CCN, 2016). However, Clinical significance often depends on the magnitude of the effect being studied, whether it has a real genuine, palpable, noticeable effect on daily life. According to Houser (2018), one of the most important steps is to identify the level of measurement for each variable in order to know which statistical analysis is more appropriate. which falls under identify the variables-dependent and independent. With that said the researcher will choose the type of measurement based on the purpose of the study. which can fall under nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio with each type of measurement needs to have a particular type of statistical technique. The most meaningful would be clinical significance because this will affect the patient outcome directly. Descriptive data analysis use numbers and graphics to organize and display the characteristics of the sample. Descriptive and Inferential statistics are both quantitative data. It is used to give the reader a picture of the study but not to mislead them. The researcher should use multiple identifier to give the reader an accurate picture of the data they are reading about. Inferential statistics is used to determine if the result would be consistence in a large population. It is used to find out if there are differences between samples and populations (Houser, 2018). Answer:

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