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lab 3Exam 3 Bookwork

lab 3Exam 3 Bookwork
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Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle
12.1 Most cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells
In eukaryotic cells (not prokaryotic cells), the DNA of a chromosome is associated with many _______? (235)

Where are chromosomes stored in a eukaryotic cell (not prokaryotic cells)? (235)

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What is the general name of all the body cells EXCEPT the reproductive cells? (235)

What is the name of human cells that have 46 chromosomes (2 sets of 23)? (235-6)

What is the general name of sperm and egg cells that have one set of chromosomes? (236)

How many chromosomes in a human gamete? (236)

In eukaryotic cells, when a chromosome is duplicated the two identical joined copies are called (236)

The genetic material of the nucleus (eukaryotic cells only) is divided in a process called (236)

The cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells is then divided in a process called (236)

Which eukaryotic process generates news cells in your body and replaces dead or damaged ones? (236-7)

Which eukaryotic process generates gametes? (237)

12.2 The mitotic phase alternates with interphase of the cell cycle
When does a cell copy its chromosomes? Interphase or Mitosis (237)

In which phase of mitosis do the chromatin fibers become more tightly coiled so they are observable? (238)

Look closely at the image of the cell in prophase and prometaphase, is each chromosome composed of two sister chromatids? (238)

In which phase do the chromosomes arrive at the equator of the cell? (239)

In which phase (the shortest phase) do the liberated daughter chromosomes begin suddenly moving to opposite ends of the cell? (239)

What is the name of cell division in prokaryotes when they simply divide in half? (242)

Does this division process in bacteria involve mitosis? (242)

Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles
13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes
When a single celled eukaryote reproduces asexually, does it use mitosis or meiosis? (255)

Which process produces genetically identical offspring (clones)? Asexual or Sexual reproduction (255)

13.2 Fertilization and meiosis alternate in sexual life cycles
How many sex chromosomes in a human cell?

What is the name for all the non-sex chromosomes? (257)

Any cell with two chromosome sets is called a ________________________ cell. (257)

Since human diploid cells have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs of chromosomes), how many chromosomes are in a haploid human cell? (257)

Is the diploid number 46 in the cells of all eukaryotes? (257)

Is the diploid number 46 in the cells of all animals? (257)

What is the name of a fertilized egg (starts with a z)? (258)

13.3 Meiosis reduces the number of chromosome sets from diploid to haploid
Are the daughter cells that result from meiosis haploid or diploid? (259)

Are the final daughter cells of meiosis genetically distinct or clones? (261)

Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance
15.2 Sex-linked genes exhibit unique patterns of inheritance
How many X chromosomes do human females inherit?__________ Human Males?___________ (300)

Since an X-chromosome is inactivated in female cells, males and females effectively have just _____ (one or two) copy of functioning genes on the X chromosome. (300)

What is a Barr body? (300)

Which human cells have Barr bodies? (300) Every female somatic cell or every male somatic cell

15.4 Alterations in chromosome number of structure cause some genetic disorders
If the homologous chromosomes fail to separate in meiosis I or the sister chromatids fail to separate in meiosis II, this is called (307)

After nondisjunction, will the gametes have the correct number of chromosomes? Yes or no (307)

Which chromosome is extra in Down Syndrome? (308)

In abnormal number of Y chromosomes may not upset the genetic balance too much because Y chromosomes have relatively __________________ (few or many) genes? (309)

In abnormal number of X chromosomes may not upset the genetic balance too much because X chromosomes can become ______________________ (activated or inactivated)? (309)

Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance
16.1 DNA is the genetic material
Which mixture kills mice? Heat-killed S cells alone OR A mixture of heat-killed S cells and living R cells (315)

What did Griffith call the phenomenon of some chemical in dead pathogenic cells changing living non-pathogenic cells? (we now know it was external DNA entering the cell) (315)

What substance did Avery et al. show caused the heritable change in the bacteria (DNA, RNA, or protein)? (315)

Did Hershey and Chase find that phage (virus) DNA or protein entered cells? (316)

Who determined in 1950 that the percentage of A bases = T bases and C bases = G bases in the DNA of all species? (315)

Who produced in the early 1950s the photographic evidence to show DNA had a double helical structure? (318)

Why are the two DNA strands called “antiparallel”? (318)

What are the sides/backbones of DNA made of? (318)

Where are the base pairs located in the DNA? (318-9)

Given this DNA 3’-AACCTTGCAGT-5’ write the complementary DNA strand.

16.2 Many proteins work together in DNA replication and repair
Since each strand of the double helix stores the information to reconstruct the other due to base-pairing rules, the two strands are said to be (320)

When a cell copies a DNA molecule, each strand serves as a ________________________ for ordering nucleotides in the new strand. (320)

In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, when DNA replicates, the new DNA consists of a one old strand and one new strand. Is this considered conservative or semi-conservative replication? (321)

How many origins of replication in the single bacterial chromosome? One or thousands (322)

Which enzyme separates the two strands of the double helix so they can be templates for DNA replication? (323)

Which strand can be synthesized continuously? Leading or lagging (324)

Is the lagging strand copied continuously? Yes or no (324)

What are the fragments of the lagging strand called? (324)

Is DNA replication perfect? (327)

What are changes to the DNA called that are NOT corrected and become permanent changes in the genome? (327)

Chapter 17 From Gene to Protein
17.1 Genes specify proteins via transcription and translation
Define transcription. (338)

Which RNA (m, t, or r) carries a genetic message from the DNA to the protein-synthesizing machinery? (338)

Define translation. (338)

Where are the sites of translation, that facilitate that orderly linking of amino acids? (339)

Where does transcription occur in a eukaryotic cell (not a prokaryotic cell)? (339)

What is the flow of genetic information in a cell? (339) DNA mRNA ____________

What is the name of the mRNA nucleotide triplet that codes for an amino acid? (340)

17.2 Transcription is the DNA-directed synthesis of RNA
What is the name of the enzyme that pries to the two strands of DNA apart AND makes the new mRNA strand? (342)

Where does RNA polymerase attach to start (initate) transcription? (342)

Given this DNA 3’-AACCTTGCAGT-5’ write the complementary mRNA strand.

17.3 Eukaryotic cells modify RNA after transcription
During RNA splicing is necessary in eukaryotic cells (not prokaryotic cells) because the RNA primary transcripts have long stretches of ________ (coding/noncoding) sequences. (346)

What are the noncoding intervening sequences called? (346)

What are the expressed coding sequences called? (346)

17.4 Translation is the RNA-directed synthesis of a polypeptide
Which RNA transfers amino acids to the growing polypeptide? (348)

What is the name of the nucleotide triplet that extends from a tRNA and base-pairs with an mRNA codon? (348)

The triplet AUG is called the ______ codon, because the ribosomal subunits start translation at this triplet. (350)

Since the triplets UAG, UAA, and UGA do not code for amino acids, they act as signals to _____ translation. (352)

17.5 Mutations of one or a few nucleotides can affect protein structure and function
If a point mutation has no observable effect it is called a __________________ mutation. (357)

A point mutation that causes a substitution of one amino acid for another is called a _________ mutation. (357)

A point mutation that causes a substitution of one amino acid for a stop codon is called a _____ mutation. (358)

If an insertion or deletion alters the reading frame for a gene it is called a __________________ mutation. (359)

Unless the frameshift is very near the end of the gene, the protein is almost certainly to be ____________. (359)

Chapter 19 Viruses
19.1 A virus consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat
What do most biologists probably agree about regarding viruses? (396) And why?

Phage are viruses that infect _______ (398-9)

Chapter 20 Biotechnology
20.1 DNA sequencing and DNA cloning are valuable tools for genetic engineering
How do restriction enzymes protect bacteria? (417)

Why are restriction enzymes “specific”? (417)

What is the name of the technique that separates and visualizes DNA fragments? (418)

20.3 Cloned organisms and stem cells are useful for basic research and other applications
Cloning by nuclear transplantation is accomplished when the ______________________ of an unfertilized egg is removed and replaced with the ______________________ of an adult cell. (427)

The production of a new individual through cloning is known as __________________________ cloning (428).

Embryonic stem cells can be made to differentiate into _________________________. (429)

Adult stem cells are NOT able to _______________________? (429)

When the main aim of cloning is to produce embryonic stem cells, this is called _______________ cloning. (430)

When adult differentiated cells are transformed into embryonic stem cells, the “deprogrammed” cells are called (430)

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